Kerala State Electricity Board
The Kerala State Electricity Board, constituted by the Government of Kerala, by order dated 7.3.1957, under the Electricity (Supply) Act, 1948 is in the business of Generation, Transmission and Distribution of electricity and striving to provide quality electricity at affordable cost to all classes of consumers in the state of Kerala. As per section 172 (a) of the Electricity Act 2003 and as mutually decided by the Government of India and Government of Kerala, KSEB has continued as Transmission utility and Distribution licensee till 24-09-2008. In exercise of powers conferred under sub-sections (1), (2), (5), (6) and (7) of section 131 of the Electricity Act, 2003, State Government vide the notification G.O (Ms).37/2008/PD dated 25th September, 2008 has vested all functions, properties, interests, rights, obligations and liabilities of KSEB with the State Government till it is re-vested the same in a corporate entity. Accordingly, KSEB has been continuing all the functions as a Generator, State Transmission Utility and a Distribution Licensee in the State.
Over the last fifty years, the Board has grown from a total installed capacity of 109 MW to an installed capacity of 2445 MW and created Transmission and Distribution networks of over 10404 and 272480 circuit kilometers respectively. At present, the Board caters to the needs of 93 lakh consumers spread over the urban and rural areas of the State. This incremental growth in the power system brought several changes in the characteristics of the system. The input cost structure and revenue composition have undergone significant changes. Until the recent past, the hydroelectric plants owned by the Board supplied a major portion of the energy requirement of the state. However, after the promulgation of the Forest Conservation Act in 1980, the implementation of new hydroelectric projects had been seriously affected and more costly thermal energy had to be generated / purchased to meet the increasing demand.
Over the years, the consumption of heavily subsidised domestic sector has been increasing and now, it accounts for approximately 46% of the total energy consumed. As a consequence, the peak demand in the state has increased to almost twice the off-peak demand. This forced more investment in the power system to meet the peak demand and purchase of thermal energy from outside the State. But the capacity so created for meeting the peak demand remains under-utilised during the off-peak periods. The Board had been supplying electricity at lowest price in the country for several decades. Because of this the Board had to resort to heavy borrowings to meet the expenses. Though the Board was statutorily enjoined to function as a commercial institution, it continued to function mainly with service orientation providing infrastructure facility, reliefs and concessions to other sectors like industry, agriculture and so on. Now, the State Commission insist upon to perform strictly on commercial considerations.
The history of Hydropower development in Kerala begins with the commissioning of Pallivasal Hydro Electric Project in 1940. Next few decades saw the progressive developments of various schemes. 300 MW Sabarigiri Hydro Electric Project in 1965 and 780 MW Idukki Hydro Electric Project in 1976 are milestones in the endeavour of power development of Kerala State Electricity Board.
At present, KSEB has a total installed capacity of 2229.6 MW(as on 23.5.2010) including the two Diesel power plants at Brahmapuram and Kozhikode. The other major power plants that are catering to the energy demands of the state are the Kayamkulam thermal power plant of NTPC with an installed capacity of 359.6 MW, BSES Kerala Power Ltd., Kochi with an installed capacity of 157 MW and the 21.436 MW plant of KPCL, Kasaragod. Kerala has approximately 1030 MW of power allocation from Central Government owned Power Projects.
Installed capacity as on 01.06.2010 from all sources
|Source||Installed Capacity (MW)|
|Hydro Electric Power Plants||1993|
|Thermal Power Plants||234.6|
|NTPC/IPP/ CPP in State|
|Small Hydro Electric Power Plants||40|
|Thermal Power Plants||187.4|
|Total MW in Kerala||2845|
Power Projects in Kerala
|Name of Station||Installed Capacity (MW)||Firm annual Generation Capability|
|Hydro Electric Projects (KSEB)|
|Idukki||6 x 130 MW||780||2398|
|Sabarigiri||5 x 55MW + 60 MW||335||1338|
|Idamalayar||2 x 37.5 MW||75||380|
|Sholayar||3 x 18 MW||54||233|
|Pallivasal||3 x 4.5 MW + 3 x 8 MW||37.5||284|
|Kuttiyadi||3 x 25 MW + 3 x 50 MW||225||583|
|Panniar||2 x 15 MW||30||158|
|Neriamangalam||3 x 17.55 MW + 25 MW||77.65||295|
|Lower Periyar||3 x 60 MW||180||493|
|Poringalkuthu & PLBE||4 x 8 MW +16 MW||48||244|
|Sengulam||4 x 12 MW||48||182|
|Kakkad||2 x 25 MW||50||262|
|Sub Total (HEP)||49 Nos||1940.2||6850|
|Small Hydro Electric Projects|
|Kallada||2 x 7.5 MW||15||65.00|
|Peppara||1 x 3 MW||3||11.50|
|Malankara||3 x 3.5 MW||10.5||44.00|
|Madupatty||1 x 2 MW||2||6.40|
|Malampuzha||1 x 2.5 MW||2.5||5.60|
|Lower Meenmutty||1 x 0.5 MW +2 x 1.5 MW||3.5||7.63|
|Chembukadavu – 1||3 x 0.9 MW||2.7||6.59|
|Chembukadavu – 2||3 x 1.25 MW||3.75||9.03|
|Urumi -1||3 x 1.25 MW||3.75||9.72|
|Urumi -2||3 x 0.8 MW||2.4||6.28|
|Kuttiyadi Tail Race||3 x 1.25 MW||3.75||15.00|
|Sub Total (SHEP)||26 Nos||52.85||186.75|
|Total (Hydel units)||75 Nos||1993||7036.8|
|Brahmapuram Diesel Power Plant (BDPP)||5 x 21.32 MW||106.6||606|
|Kozhikode Diesel Power Plant (KDPP)||8 x 16 MW||128||896|
|Sub Total (Thermal)||13 nos.||234.6||1502.0|
|26||Kanjikode Wind Farm||9 x 0.225||2||4|
|TOTAL MW (KSEB)||97 Nos||2229.6||8543|
|Other Power Projects in Kerala|
|1||Maniyar [SHEP – Captive Power Plant (CPP)]||3 x 4 MW||12||36|
|2||Kuthungal (SHEP – CPP)||3 x 7 MW||21||79|
|3||Ullunkal [SHEP – IPP (Independent Power Plant)]||2 x 3.5 MW||7||32|
|4||MP Steel Co-Gen (IPP)||4 MW + 3 x 2 MW||10||67.67|
|5||Wind – Agali (IPP)||23 x 0.6 MW||13.8||26.6|
|6||Wind – Ramakkalmedu (IPP)||19 x 0.75 MW||14.25||27.46|
|7||KPCL (Naptha – IPP)||3 x 7.3 MW||20.4||140|
|8||BSES Kerala Power Ltd. (Naptha – IPP)||3 x 40.5 MW + 35.5 MW||157||1099|
|9||RGCCPS-NTPC, Kayamkulam (Naptha)||2 x 116.6 MW +
|Sub Total (IPP/CPP)||615||3666|
|GRAND TOTAL (Kerala)||2845|
Present Maximum Demand of Kerala System is 2998 MW and the daily consumption has reached 56.26 million Units. Kerala State Electricity Board (KSEB) has been taking effective steps to increase the installed capacity of the power system to meet the growth in consumption.
Transmission system is an essential link between power stations and load centres for bulk transfer of power and it has a vital role in the management of power. KSEB has pioneered the modern concept of developing a large transmission network for transferring power from power stations to the local load centres.
The Kerala power system grid is connected to the Southern Region Transmission system through two 400kV double circuit lines. They are (1) Udumalpet- Madakkathara line and (2) Thiruneveli- Pallippuram( Trivandrum) line. There are 6 major inter-state transmission lines. at 220KV level and 110KV level. The 220 KV lines are (1) Kaniyampetta- Kadakola(single circuit). (2) Idukki – Udumalpet(single circuit). (3) Sabarigiri – Theni (single circuit). (4) Edamon – Thirunelveli(double circuit). The 110 KV lines are (1).Parassala – Kuzhithura and (2) Manjeswaram – Konake.The major substations include one 400 KV sub-station, and seventeen 220 KV substations. The main grid comprises of the 220 KV systems.
The transmission sector of KSEB comprises of two zones namely North and South, and a System Operation wingeach headed by a Chief Engineer. The North zone is headed by the Chief Engineer (Transmission – North) with its head quarters at Kozhikode, and the South zone headed by the Chief Engineer (Transmission-South) with its head quarters at Thiruvananthapuram.
The System Operations wing with headquarters at Kalamassery is responsible for the real time management of Kerala Power System and also the activities connected with communication and protection fields. The State Load Dispatch Centre (SLDC) does meticulous planning and prudent operations to attain excellent results. It includes real time load restrictions as and when necessary, generation scheduling, maintenance scheduling, scheduling the import of power from IPPs and CGS on long term as well as on daily basis, economic load dispatching, merit order dispatching, unit commitment policy, fixing up of merit order for under frequency tripping and remote switching from the sub LD Stations.
An overview of the transmission system as on 31.3.10 is given below:
|Sl. No.||Capacity||No. Substations||Line length in Circuit Kms||Reliability Index|
KSE Board distributes electricity in the State of Kerala except in the Thrissur Municipal Corporation and Munnar (Kannan Devan Hills). For operational conveniences the distribution wing is divided into three zones namely South, Central and North.
The South zone is headed by Chief Engineer (Distribution South) with headquarters at Thiruvananthapuram and has 6 Electrical Circles, 19 Divisions (including TMR Divisions at Thirumala & Pallom), 58 Subdivisions, 166 Electrical Sections and a Regional Stores Division at Kundara.
The Central zone has 7 Electrical Circles, 25 Divisions (including TMR Division at Angamaly), 75 Subdivisions, 219 Electrical Sections and a Regional Stores Division at Aluva. The Central Zone is headed by Chief Engineer (Distribution Central) and has its headquarters at Ernakulam.
The North zone is headed by Chief Engineer (Distribution North) with headquarters at Kozhikode and has 10 Electrical Circles, 25 Divisions (including TMR Divisions at Shornur), 78 Subdivisions, 256 Electrical Sections and a Regional Stores Division at Kallai.
|System Statistics (Abstract) as on March-2010|
|Sl.No.||Name of Work||unit||TOTAL|
|d) LT Industrial||No.||118239|
|2||a) 33 KV Line||Km.||893|
|b) 22 KV Line||Km.||32|
|c) 11 KV Line||Km.||45541|
|3||a) LT 3 – Ph. Line||Km.||102894|
|b) LT Single Ph. Line||Km.||157777|
|Total L.T Line||Km.||260670|
|The Kerala State Electricity Regulatory Commission was constituted under the provisions of Subsection (1) of Section 17 of the Electricity Regulatory Commissions Act, 1998. With effect from 10th June, 2003, the Commission has come under the purview of the Electricity Act, 2003, as the Electricity Regulatory Commissions Act, 1998 has since been repealed.|
|The Commission consists of the following:|
|Chairman : Shri K.J Mathew IAS (Rtd. Chief Secretary, Govt. of Kerala)|
|Member : Shri.C.Abdulla|
|Member : Shri.M.P.Aiyappan|
|Secretary : Shri. K.S. Premachandra Kurup IAS (Rtd)|
The Headquarters of the Commission is at Thiruvananthapuram.
|Functions of the Kerala State Electricity Regulatory Commission|
|a. determine the tariff for generation, supply, transmission and wheeling of electricity, wholesale, bulk or retail, as the case may be, within the State|
|b. regulate electricity purchase and procurement process of distribution licensees including the price at which electricity shall be procured from the generating companies or licensees or from other sources through agreements for purchase of power for distribution and supply within the State|
|c. facilitate intra-State transmission and wheeling of electricity|
|d. issue licenses to persons seeking to act as transmission licensees, distribution licensees and electricity traders with respect to their operations within the State|
|e. promote cogeneration and generation of electricity from renewable sources of energy by providing suitable measures for connectivity with the grid and sale of electricity to any person, and also specify, for purchase of electricity from such sources, a percentage of the total consumption of electricity in the area of a distribution licensee|
|f. adjudicate upon the disputes between the licensees and generating companies and to refer any dispute for arbitration|
|g. levy free for the purposes of the Electricity Act, 2003|
|h. specify State Grid Code|
|i. specify or enforce standards with respect to quality, continuity and reliability of service by licensees|
|j. fix the trading margin in the intra-State trading of electricity, if considered, necessary|
|k. discharge such other functions as may be assigned to it under the Electricity Act, 2003|
|l. advise the State Government on all or any of the following matters, namely:|
|i. promotion of competition, efficiency and economy in activities of the electricity industry|
|ii. promotion of investment in electricity industry|
|iii. reorganization and restructuring of electricity industry in the State|
|iv. matters concerning generation, transmission, distribution and trading of electricity or any other matter referred to the State Commission by that Government|